Monday, March 1, 2010

Bhut Jolokia

It was recently time to order to some more Brother Bru-Bru's hot sauce, which is my preferred condiment for home fries and Röschti. Hot sauces are fairly shelf stable, so we like to stock up, which also saves on shipping. Furthermore, boutique sauces come and go: we are down to our last bottle of Satan's Revenge, an Indonesian-style sauce which I like on zucchini sticks, but which hasn't been produced in several years (it is still shown in the web site photo).

And there is always something new to try. For a while, the new hotness (sorry) was Red Savina peppers. We still have a bottle of Melinda's version. Now it is Bhut Jolokia and we got the Melinda's, which is good on a grilled portabello mushroom, and the Dave's Gourmet, which I've yet to try, since I'm waiting for the bottle of Dave's Insanity, which I put on pumpkin kibbeh, to be finished. As one might imagine, these personal pairings help to justify a larder full of hot sauces.

Read More

Though that Wikipedia page has some dead news links, it does a reasonable job of summarizing the “new” world's hottest peppers: a group of related hybrids of mostly C. chinense with some C. frutescens genetic material, from the area around Assam, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Manipur and Nagaland. More comprehensive are Dave DeWitt's and Gernot Katzer's pages.

Of particular interest are the names and their associated problems. Bhut-jolokia is sometimes glossed as 'ghost pepper', as though it were ভুত-জলকীয়া, when in fact it is 'Bhotiya (Bhutanese) pepper', that is, ভোট-জলকীয়া. Similarly, Naga-jolokia is claimed as 'serpent pepper' নাগ-, rather than 'Naga (that is, related to the Nagas or Nagalim) pepper' নগা-. In a stricter transliteration scheme, like the one used by the Library of Congress, the differences would be clearer: bhut-jalakīyā, vs. bhoṭ- and nāga- vs. nagā-. Though that may not be the whole story, since the other forms do occur in reliable sources like a user-contributed dictionary or an academic promotion. Nor are all the actual names benign: bih-jolokia is indeed 'poison pepper', বিহ-জলকীয়া. One of the names in Nagaland (though it isn't clear in what language(s) — perhaps Nagamese creole) is 'king of peppers', राज-मिरंच rāja-mirca.

This recent favor in the West was picked up and encouraged by the Assam and Manipur news and television reporting from Nagaland (video starts playing right away). And so discussion in some blogs helps to confirm and clarify the identifications in Assamese or Naga cuisine. And to offer some additional names like Sap Hmarcha and Sap Malta. Or other related varieties like U Morok. (Hmarcha and morok মরোক / ꯃꯔꯣꯀ are clearly 'chili pepper' and so presumably is malta; sap might be 'snake', or perhaps that's a coincidence. U is apparently 'tree'; that variety is eaten with some kind of water lily seed.)

Still, Katzer's spice page raises the interesting question of just how old this super-hot pepper is in its native land. Here again, transliteration inconsistencies make searching somewhat less efficient. A Victorian report uses jálika. But the most common in the early 20th century seems to be jalakia. A report from just after independence lists some specific hot varieties, Surjamukhi Jalakia (সূৰ্য্যমুখী-জলকীয়া 'sunflower pepper') and Kharika Jalakia (খৰিক-জলকীয়া 'long slender stick pepper', still known as Khorika Jolokia), but they don't seem to match. However, A Dictionary in Assamese and English (1867) , which Wikipedia (s.v.) says was the first Assamese dictionary, has this entry (p. 439):

ভোটমৰিচ, s. এবিখ সকত জলকীয়া, a species of large red pepper.

Much as I would like to believe that bhût-morich then is the same as bhût-jolokia now, there really isn't anything remarkable about peppers from Bhutan in Assam, nor about red peppers, and large is relative. Now, it is true that C. chinense violate the ordinary hot pepper rule from C. frutescens like bird peppers or Thai chilis, that smaller is hotter. So there isn't anything to suggest this isn't it, either.

In any case, it seems that these new hottest peppers are consistently over one million Scoville units. Only twenty years ago, when the hot pepper craze in the USA was already in full swing, a cookbook author is quoted in the New York Times as unable to even track down who Wilbur Scoville was, using then standard sources like the Library of Congress Authorities file. Now, in addition to those Wikipedia entries, it is easy to search pharmaceutical literature of the time and find dozens of research papers on various topics authored by Scoville. One can even find, “A Note on Capsicums,” (note the plural, many sources cite it as singular), as published at the time of his presentation or the following year in the Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association with some comments and so the standard citation, either in the digital version of that journal, if you have access to a research library, or, otherwise in a copy among the course materials for an MIT course on Kitchen Chemistry.


be_slayed said...

Perhaps bhūt-jalakīyā "ghost pepper" arose by folk-etymologising bhoṭ-jalakīyā "Bhutanese pepper"---I mean folk-etymology internal to Assamese/Nagamese/Hindi itself, by speakers who didn't understand the Bhutan connection.

Cain said...

firstly, I don't want my comment be listed with these spam ones above, but I can't find other way to contact you.

I noticed there's a part of your site is about language learning.

I'm the webmaster of, a Chinese learning site which is a mainly an English-Chinese and Chinese-English dictionary, meanwhile offering Chinese learning aid tools like annotation tool, translation tool and so forth.

And a Chinese character stroke order animation feature will be rolling out soon, which would be cool for handwriting learners.

Could you please consider adding my site into your resource list? I'm sure that would benefit more users.

Thank you.

Best wishes,


Balashon said...

Hello -

I have a question about a word that I'm researching for my blog - the Hebrew kusemet, originally spelt or emmer, and in modern Hebrew "buckwheat".

I see that you seem to be an expert in food and words (two of my favorite concerns.) Could you email me at so I can explain my question?



Priscila said...

It’s time for The Top 100 Language Blogs 2010 competition and the good news is your blog has been nominated. Congratulations!
After previous years’ success the language portal and Lexiophiles language blog are hosting our worldwide language blog competition once again.
We are looking for the top 100 language blogs in four categories: Language Learning, Language Teaching, Language Technology and Language Professionals.
You have been nominated to the following category: Language Learning.
The nomination period goes from April 27th to May 11th. Each blog will have a one-sentence-description for the voting. If you would like a special description to go along with your blog, just send me an email (priscila [at] The voting period goes from May 12th to May 24th. The winners will be announced on May 28th. Feel free to spread the word among bloggers writing about languages.
For more information on The Top 100 Language Blogs 2010 visit:

Kind regards,
On behalf of the and Lexiophiles team

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the link to Melinda's, that sauce looks great.